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Going Where the Commission to Investigate Public Corruption & Preet Did NOT:
New York's Election Law, Cross-Endorsements,
& Sham Third Parties


CJA's two Election Law lawsuits
challenging political party cross-endorsements
& judge-trading deals: 

Castracan v. Colavita   (1990-1991)

Sady v. Murphy   (1991)


June 2009
"Cross-Endorsement by Political Parties: A 'Very Pretty Jungle?"
29 Pace Law Review 765 (Celia Curtis)


December 14, 2013
"Cross-party endorsements in New York needs to end"
New York Post
           "In its lengthy report exposing mischief in New York’s political system, the Moreland Commission missed a major target for real reform: the state’s minor political parties.
                    Because of a quirk in state law, minor parties in New York wield influence far beyond their numbers. That’s because New York is the rare state that allows minor parties to cross-endorse candidates of the top two parties.
                  It’s an invitation to corruption: Cross-endorsements give minor parties power by allowing them to extract promises — or cash — out of major-party candidates in exchange for giving them an extra ballot line or doing their dirty work.
                  If the Moreland Commission is really as worried about the nexus between money and politics as it claims, instead of trying to inject more taxpayer dollars into this rotten system, it ought to call for an end to cross-party endorsements. This would greatly reduce the incentive that now exists for the minor-party leaders to sell their party services to the bigger players.
                  If minor parties want to participate in elections, let them get their candidates on the ballot and compete with the big boys — instead of underwriting the big boys behind the scenes."


"New York's Third Party Mess",
May 2010
Huff Post (Dan Collins)

          "Every state has third parties, but in New York they are particularly important and powerful because they don’t nominate their own candidates. They cross-endorse the Republicans and Democrats, under a system known as fusion voting. 
         New York is one of the few states in the country that allows fusion voting. Advocates say it lets voters express their support for a third party’s values without having to waste their votes on a third party candidate....
         That’s the theory. In the real world, these parties tend to devolve into a legal extortion system - demanding patronage or financial support from the Democratic and Republican nominees in return for giving them a second, or third, or fourth line on the ballot." 

July 30, 2010
"New York's Third Parties"
New Yorker (Hendrik Hertzberg)

April 2, 2013
"Wilson-Pakula, Obscure to All But Ballot-Hopping Politicians"
New York Times

"Who or What is Wilson-Pakula?"

April 19, 2013
"A Bid to Limit Each Candidate to One Party Line is Stirring Debate"
New York Times  (Jesse McKinley)

April 30, 2013
"Cuomo Unveils Wilson-Pakula Repeal, Electoral Reform"
State of Politics (Nick Reisman)
Gov's Program Bill #4 - Memo

July 19, 2015
"Who needs these third parties?"
New York Post


Connecticut bill -- March 2013



May 4, 2018
"Confusion, Spoilers and New York's Many Ballot Lines"
Gotham Gazette (Max Brachfeld)








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